Home » Key Scientific Articles » Translational control during endoplasmic reticulum stress beyond phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2{Alpha}.

Translational control during endoplasmic reticulum stress beyond phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2{Alpha}.

Guan BJ, Krokowski D, Majumder M, Schmotzer CL, Kimball SR, Merrick WC, Koromilas AE, Hatzoglou M.

J Biol Chem. 2014 May 2;289(18):12593-611.

From the Department of ‡Pharmacology, §Pathology, and ‖Biochemistry, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, &
the Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033, &
the Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Sir Mortimer B. Davis Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec H3T 1E2, Canada, and
Department of Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H2W 1S6, Canada.

 

 

Abstract

 

The accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes stress to which an unfolded protein response is activated to render cell survival or apoptosis (chronic stress). Transcriptional and translational reprogramming is tightly regulated during the unfolded protein response to ensure specific gene expression. The master regulator of this response is the PERK/eIF2{Alpha}/ATF4 signaling where eIF2{Alpha} is phosphorylated (eIF2{Alpha}-P) by the kinase PERK. This signal leads to global translational shutdown, but it also enables translation of the transcription factor ATF4 mRNA. We showed recently that ATF4 induces an anabolic program through the up-regulation of selected amino acid transporters and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Paradoxically, this anabolic program led cells to apoptosis during chronic ER stress in a manner that involved recovery from stress-induced protein synthesis inhibition. By using eIF2{Alpha}-P-deficient cells as an experimental system, we identified a communicating network of signaling pathways that contribute to the inhibition of protein synthesis during chronic ER stress. This eIF2{Alpha}-P-independent network includes (i) inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin kinase protein complex 1 (mTORC1)-targeted protein phosphorylation, (ii) inhibited translation of a selective group of 5′-terminal oligopyrimidine mRNAs (encoding proteins involved in the translation machinery and translationally controlled by mTORC1 signaling), and (iii) inhibited translation of non-5′-terminal oligopyrimidine ribosomal protein mRNAs and ribosomal RNA biogenesis. We propose that the PERK/eIF2{Alpha}-P/ATF4 signaling acts as a brake in the decline of protein synthesis during chronic ER stress by positively regulating signaling downstream of the mTORC1 activity. These studies advance our knowledge on the complexity of the communicating signaling pathways in controlling protein synthesis rates during chronic stress.

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