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Nitric oxide donors as neuroprotective agents after an ischemic stroke-related inflammatory reaction.

Godínez-Rubí M, Rojas-Mayorquín AE, Ortuno-Sahagún D.

Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2013;2013:297357.


Laboratorio de Desarrollo y Regeneración Neural, Instituto de Neurobiología, Departamento de Biología Celular y Molecular, CUCBA, Universidad de Guadalajara, camino Ing. R. Padilla Sánchez, 2100, Las Agujas, 44600 Zapopan, JAL, Mexico.



Cerebral ischemia initiates a cascade of detrimental events including glutamate-associated excitotoxicity, intracellular calcium accumulation, formation of Reactive oxygen species (ROS), membrane lipid degradation, and DNA damage, which lead to the disruption of cellular homeostasis and structural damage of ischemic brain tissue. Cerebral ischemia also triggers acute inflammation, which exacerbates primary brain damage. Therefore, reducing oxidative stress (OS) and downregulating the inflammatory response are options that merit consideration as potential therapeutic targets forischemic stroke. Consequently, agents capable of modulating both elements will constitute promising therapeutic solutions because clinically effective neuroprotectants have not yet been discovered and no specific therapy for stroke is available to date. Because of their ability to modulate both oxidative stress and the inflammatory response, much attention has been focused on the role of nitric oxide donors (NOD) as neuroprotectiveagents in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Given their short therapeutic window, NOD appears to be appropriate for use during neurosurgical procedures involving transient arterial occlusions, or in very early treatment of acute ischemic stroke, and also possibly as complementary treatment for neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson or Alzheimer, where oxidative stress is an important promoter of damage. In the present paper, we focus on the role of NOD as possible neuroprotective therapeutic agents for ischemia/reperfusion treatment.



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