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Comprehensive in vitro analysis of simian retrovirus type 4 susceptibility to antiretroviral agents.

Togami H, Shimura K, Okamoto M, Yoshikawa R, Miyazawa T, Matsuoka M.

J Virol. 2013 Apr;87(8):4322-9.

Laboratory of Virus Control, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.




Simian retrovirus type 4 (SRV-4), a simian type D retrovirus, naturally infects cynomolgus monkeys, usually without apparent symptoms. However, some infected monkeys presented with an immunosuppressive syndrome resembling that induced by simian immunodeficiency virus infection. Antiretrovirals with inhibitory activity against SRV-4 are considered to be promising agents to combat SRV-4 infection. However, although some antiretrovirals have been reported to have inhibitory activity against SRV-1 and SRV-2, inhibitors with anti-SRV-4 activity have not yet been studied. In this study, we identified antiretroviral agents with anti-SRV-4 activity from a panel of anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drugs using a robust invitro luciferase reporter assay. Among these, two HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitors, zidovudine (AZT) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), potently inhibited SRV-4 infection within a submicromolar to nanomolar range, which was similar to or higher than the activities against HIV-1, Moloney murine leukemia virus, and feline immunodeficiency virus. In contrast, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors did not exhibit any activities against SRV-4. Although both AZT and TDF effectively inhibited cell-free SRV-4 transmission, they exhibited only partial inhibitory activities against cell-to-cell transmission. Importantly, one HIV integrase strand transfer inhibitor, raltegravir (RAL), potently inhibited single-round infection as well as cell-free and cell-to-cell SRV-4 transmission. These findings indicate that viral expansion routes impact the inhibitory activity of antiretrovirals against SRV-4, while only RAL is effective in suppressing both the initial SRV-4 infection and subsequent SRV-4 replication.


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Comprehensive In Vitro Analysis of Simian Retrovirus Type 4 Susceptibility to Antiretroviral Agents