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Investigating processes of nanocrystal formation and transformation via liquid cell TEM

Nielsen MH1, Li D2, Zhang H3, Aloni S4, Han TY5, Frandsen C6, Seto J7, Banfield JF3, Cölfen H7, De Yoreo JJ2.

Microsc Microanal. 2014 Apr;20(2):425-36.

Show Affiliations

1 Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA and

2 Physical Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, USA and

3 Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA and

4 Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA and

5 Physical Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551, USA and

6 Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark and

7 Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz, Germany.




Recent ex situ observations of crystallization in both natural and synthetic systems indicate that the classical models of nucleation and growth are inaccurate. However, in situ observations that can provide direct evidence for alternative models have been lacking due to the limited temporal and spatial resolution of experimental techniques that can observe dynamic processes in a bulk solution. Here we report results from liquid cell transmission electron microscopy studies of nucleation and growth of Au, CaCO3, and iron oxide nanoparticles. We show how these in situ data can be used to obtain direct evidence for the mechanisms underlying nanoparticle crystallization as well as dynamic information that provide constraints on important energetic parameters not available through ex situ methods.

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Investigating Processes of Nanocrystal Formation and Transformation via Liquid Cell TEM


















Global Medical Discovery features using liquid cell transmission electron microscopy to study nanocrystal formation.