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In vitro response of human osteoblasts to multi-step sol-gel derived bioactive glass nanoparticles for bone tissue engineering

Fan JP, Kalia P, Di Silvio L, Huang J.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2014 Mar 1;36:206-14.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE, UK. Electronic address: [email protected] and

Biomaterials, Tissue Engineering & Imaging, The Dental Institute, King’s College London, Guy’s Hospital, London SE1 9BT, UK and

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE, UK.

 

Abstract

 

A multi-step sol-gel process was employed to synthesize bioactive glass (BG) nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the bioactive glass nanoparticles were spherical and ranged from 30 to 60 nm in diameter. In vitro reactivity of the bioactive glass nanoparticles was tested in phosphate buffer saline (PBS), Tris-buffer (TRIS), simulated body fluid (SBF), and Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM), in comparison with similar sized hydroxyapatite (HA) and silicon substituted HA (SiHA) nanoparticles. Bioactivity of the BG nanoparticles was confirmed through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. It was found that bone-like apatite was formed after immersion in SBF at 7 days. Solutions containing bioactive glass nanoparticles were slightly more alkaline than HA and SiHA, suggesting that a more rapid apatite formation on bioactive glass was related to solution-mediated dissolution. Primary  human osteoblast (HOB) cell model was used to evaluate biological responses to bioactive glass nanoparticles. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) cytotoxicity assay showed that HOB cells were not adversely affected by the bioactive glass nanoparticles throughout the 7day test period. Interestingly, MTS assay results showed an enhancement in cell proliferation in the presence of bioactive glass  when compared to HA and SiHA nanoparticles. Particularly, statistically significant (p<0.05) alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of HOB cells was found on the culture containing bioactive glass nanoparticles, suggesting that the cell differentiation might be promoted by bioactive glass. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis (qPCR) further confirmed this finding, as a significantly higher level of RUNX2 gene expression was recorded on the cells cultured in the presence of bioactive  glass  nanoparticles when compared to those with HA and SiHA.

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In vitro response of human osteoblasts to multi-step sol-gel derived bioactive glass nanoparticles for bone tissue engineering